This surgical procedure o0f replacing the weight bearing surface to relieve the pain due to occurrence of osteoarthritis It is also useful to cure other knee diseases like rheumatoid & psoriatic arthriritis. In case of severe deformity caused this surgery is bit risky It is medically termed as unicompartmental arthroplasty.
The knee is basically divided in to three parts, or compartments medical (the inside part), lateral (outside part) & patellofemoral (the joint between knee cap & thigh bone).Patients with wear or injuries in more than one & or all compartments need complete knee replacement. But patients with complain in only one compartment namely in the medical or the inside part of the knee have to resort to Partial Knee Replacement.
Compared to total knee replacement this type of surgery is it involves smaller incision & easier post operative rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay, less blood loss, lower risk of infection or blood clot. Persons with infectious arthraritis or deformity cannot opt for this type of surgery. Risks & complication in this process is similar to that of joint replacement. The most serious complication that can occur is that of infection of the joints, but this incidence been observed in case of less than 1% of patients, deep vein thrombosis may occur, but that is rare. Preoperative preparation begins just after consultation & may last for one month.
The patient has to go through various types of motion exercises for strengthening hip, ankle & knee. At this stage various preoperative tests like complete blood count, electrolytes, blood clotting is measured, chest x-rays & ECG are also carried out. The patient may be prescribed supplementary iron to boost up hemoglobin count. Accurate x-rays are taken to find the measure of components will be required. The surgery involves removing the cartilage & metal components are impacted in the bones. There are variations like cemented & non-cemented components. The normal range of motion of the knee is0-135 degrees, this surgery enables the patient for a motion ranging from0-110 degrees. Post operative hospitalization may extend up to even for seven days. But occasionally stiffness in joints occurs. In some cases anesthesitic solution is provided in order to get rid of post operative stiffness. Previously there has been a post operative complain of loosening of the components but presently that does not occur.
Post operative blood clotting is referred as thrombosis. In some cases signs of fever, chills, painful joints & draining sinus may be observed. If at all per prosthetic infection occur in that case conventional radiograph, serology, culture etc. are useful. The normal wait period for those less than 70 years is three to four months. For patients over seventy years & regarding nonemergency cases the wait period is five months. A detailed clinical history is an effective tool for diagnose an infection early. Previously a post operative complaint was that of relocation of knee cap. But with advances in medical science have already taken care of such complains. Partial Knee Replacement does not involve those risks & complication that total replacement may call for.